Newly released: Recommendations from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission to Build a Healthier America. Time to Act: Investing in the Health of Our Children and Communities calls for action on early childhood, healthy communities, and bridging health and health care. Read the report and explore the charts, infographics, and videos at RWJF.org

Race and Ethnicity Charts

  • Across America, Differences in How Long and How Well We Live

    Where we live, work, learn and play dramatically affects our health—for better or for worse. Across America and within every state, there are differences in how long and how well we live. This map and accompanying chart show the highest and lowest life expectancy rates (based on county-level data) found in each state and the District of Columbia.

  • Education Is Linked With Health Regardless of Racial or Ethnic Group

    Differences in adult health status by education do not simply reflect differences by racial or ethnic group. Both educational attainment and racial or ethnic group matter.

  • Gaps in Children’s General Health Status by Family Income: How Do States Compare?

    Comparing states based on the size of the gap in children’s general health status by income reveals unrealized health potential among babies, both at the national level and in every state.

  • Gaps in Children’s General Health Status by Family Income:How Do States Compare?

    Although the size of the state-level gaps in children’s general health status varies markedly across the United States, there is unrealized health potential among children in every state.

  • Gaps in Infant Mortality Rates by Mother’s Education: How Do States Compare?

    Comparing states based on the size of the gap in infant mortality by mother’s education reveals unrealized health potential among babies, both at the national level and in every state.

  • Gaps in Infant Mortality Rates by Mother’s Education:How Do States Compare?

    Although the size of the state-level gaps in infant mortality by mother’s education varies markedly across the United States, there is unrealized health potential among babies in every state.

  • Health Varies by Income and Across Racial or Ethnic Groups

    Lower income generally means worse health. Racial or ethnic differences in health status are also evident: Poor or fair health is much more common among black and Hispanic adults than among white adults.

  • Health-Related Behaviors and Income Matter for Children’s Health

    Differences in children’s general health status occur across social groups, but also depend on health-related behaviors in families. At every income level, children in families where someone smokes and no one exercises regularly are more likely to be in less than optimal health than their peers in families with healthier behaviors.

  • Income Is Linked With Health Regardless of Racial or Ethnic Group

    For children in the United States, differences in general health status by income do not simply reflect differences by race or ethnicity. Both income and racial or ethnic group are important for health.

  • Income Is Linked with Health Regardless of Racial or Ethnic Group

    Differences in health status by income do not simply reflect differences by race or ethnicity; differences in health can be seen within each racial or ethnic group. Both income and racial or ethnic group matter.

  • Influences on Health: Broadening the Focus

    Health is shaped by many influences, including age, sex, genetic make-up, medical care, individual behaviors and other factors not shown in this diagram. Behaviors, as well as receipt of medical care, are shaped by living and working conditions, which in turn are shaped by economic and social opportunities and resources.

  • Life Expectancy: Where You Live Matters

    In Wake County, home to the state capital of Raleigh, N.C., the average life expectancy is 78.1 years. In Robeson County--just three counties away--life expectancy is 6.6 years less. But early childhood development programs in North Carolina are increasing the chances of living longer and healthier lives.

  • Philadelphia: Where You Live Matters

    Where we live dramatically affects our health—for better or for worse. Community attributes—including the availability of safe and healthy housing, access to nutritious food and safe places to exercise—can have a direct impact on our opportunity to lead long and healthy lives.

  • Racial or Ethnic Differences in Health Regardless of Income

    Racial or ethnic disparities do not simply reflect differences in income. Racial or ethnic disparities in the likelihood of poor or fair health are seen within each income group. Both income and race or ethnic group matter.

  • Racial or Ethnic Differences in Poverty

    Higher proportions of black and Hispanic Americans live in poverty. These patterns are particularly striking for children.

  • Reducing Health Disparities: Broadening the Focus

    Medical care and personal responsibility for behaviors are important. But finding promising strategies to reduce disparities will require broadening the focus to include the social and economic contexts in which Americans live.

  • United States: Gaps in Adult Health Status

    In the nation overall, adult health status varies both by level of educational attainment and by racial or ethnic group.

  • United States: Gaps in Children’s General Health Status

    Overall in the United States, children’s general health status varies by family income and education and by racial or ethnic group. Children in the least-advantaged groups typically experience the worst health, but even children in middle-class families are less healthy than those with greater advantages.

  • United States: Gaps in Infant Mortality

    Infant mortality rates – a key indicator of overall health – vary by mother’s education and racial or ethnic group nationally.

  • United States: Social Factors Affecting Adult Health

    In the United States, health among adults is powerfully linked with social factors such as household income, educational attainment and racial or ethnic group.

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